All details regarding Activated Vaccines, Inactivated Vaccines & Protein Subunit Vaccines
* Activated Vaccines:
* Sputnik Light:
Sputnik Light is a single dose COVID-19 vaccine developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. It actually consists of the first dose of the Sputnik V vaccine, which is based on the Ad26 vector, and it can be stored at a normal refrigerator temperature of 2–8 °C (36–46 °F). The institute says this version, with an effectiveness of 79.4%, would be ideally suited for areas with acute outbreaks, allowing more people to be vaccinated quickly.
* Sputnik V:
Sputnik V is an adenovirus viral vector vaccine for COVID-19 developed by the Gamaleya Research Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology. It was registered on 11 August 2020 by the Russian Ministry of Health as Gam-COVID-Vac The 'V' in its name is the letter and not the Roman numeral.
Gam-COVID-Vac was initially approved for distribution in Russia and then in 59 other countries (as of April 2021) on the preliminary results of Phase I–II studies eventually published on 4 September 2020. Approval in early August of Gam-COVID-Vac was met with media criticism in mass media and discussions in the scientific community as to whether approval was justified in the absence of robust scientific research confirming safety and efficacy. On 2 February 2021, an interim analysis from the trial was published in The Lancet, indicating 91.6% efficacy without unusual side effects.
Emergency mass-distribution of the vaccine began in December 2020 in countries including Russia, Argentina, Belarus, Hungary, Serbia and the United Arab Emirates. By February 2021 over a billion doses of the vaccine had been ordered for immediate distribution worldwide.
* Oxford–AstraZeneca (Covishield):
The Oxford–AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine, codenamed AZD1222, and sold under the brand names Covishield and Vaxzevria among others, is a viral vector vaccine for prevention of COVID-19. Developed by Oxford University and AstraZeneca, it is given by intramuscular injection, using as a vector the modified chimpanzee adenovirus ChAdOx1. The efficacy of the vaccine is 76.0% at preventing symptomatic COVID-19 beginning at 22 days following the first dose and 81.3% after the second dose.
The vaccine has a good safety profile, with side effects including injection-site pain, headache, and nausea, all generally resolving within a few days. More rarely, anaphylaxis may occur (the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has 268 reports out of some 21.2 million vaccinations as of 14 April 2021). In very rare cases (around 1 in 100,000 people) the vaccine has been associated with an increased risk of blood clots in combination with low levels of blood platelets. According to the European Medicines Agency as of 4 April 2021, 222 cases of blood clots have been reported from the European Economic Area and the UK, where around 34 million people have received the vaccine.
On 30 December 2020, the vaccine was first approved for use in the UK vaccination program, and the first vaccination outside of a trial was administered on 4 January 2021. The vaccine has since been approved by several medicine agencies worldwide, such as the European Medicines Agency (EMA), and the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration, and was approved for an Emergency Use Listing by the World Health Organization (WHO). Some countries have limited its use to elderly people at higher risk for severe COVID-19 illness due to concerns over the very rare side effects of the vaccine in younger individuals.
On 26 May 2021, researchers from the University of Ulm published a study that shows that AZD1222 contains large amounts of human proteins (including heat shock proteins like Hsp90) that are remnants from the adenovirus breeding in human cell lines. The amount of these impurities varies between the vaccine lots, in the lot ABV5811 two thirds of the proteins are impurities whereas in ABV4678 and ABV7746 only about a half of the proteins were impurities.
AD5-nCOV, trade-named Convidecia, is a single-dose viral vector vaccine for COVID-19 developed by CanSino Biologics. It conducted its Phase III trials in Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Pakistan, Russia, and Saudi Arabia with 40,000 participants.
In February 2021, global data from Phase III trials and 101 COVID cases showed that the vaccine had a 65.7% efficacy in preventing moderate symptoms of COVID-19, and 91% efficacy in preventing severe disease. It has similar efficacy to Johnson & Johnson's Ad26.COV2.S, another one-shot adenovirus vector vaccine with 66% efficacy in a global trial. Convidecia is similar to other viral vector vaccines like AZD1222, Gam-COVID-Vac, and Ad26.COV2.S. Its single-dose regimen and normal refrigerator storage requirement (2°to 8 °C) could make it a favorable vaccine option for many countries.
Convidecia is authorized for use in China, Mexico, Pakistan, Hungary, and Chile. Production capacity for Ad5-NCov should reach 500 million doses in 2021. Manufacturing will take place in China, Malaysia, Mexico, and Pakistan.
* Johnson & Johnson:
The Janssen or Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine is a COVID-19 vaccine that was developed by Janssen Vaccines in Leiden, Netherlands, and its Belgian parent company Janssen Pharmaceuticals, subsidiary of American company Johnson & Johnson.
It is a viral vector vaccine based on a human adenovirus that has been modified to contain the gene for making the spike protein of the SARS-CoV-2 virus that causes COVID-19. The body's immune system responds to this spike protein to produce antibodies. The vaccine requires only one dose and does not need to be stored frozen.
Clinical trials for the vaccine were started in June 2020, with Phase III trials involving around 43,000 people. On 29 January 2021, Janssen announced that 28 days after a completed vaccination, the vaccine was 66% effective in a one-dose regimen in preventing symptomatic COVID-19, with an 85% efficacy in preventing severe COVID-19, and 100% efficacy in preventing hospitalization or death caused by the disease.
The vaccine has been granted an emergency use authorization by the US Food and Drug Administration and a conditional marketing authorization by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency.
* Inactivated Vaccines :
As an inactivated vaccine like CoronaVac and BBV152, BBIBP-CorV uses a more traditional technology that is similar to the inactivated polio vaccine. Initially, a sample of SARS-CoV-2 from China capable of rapid multiplication was used to grow large quantities of the virus using vero cells. From then on, the viruses are soaked in beta-propiolactone, which deactivates them by binding to their genes, while leaving other viral particles intact. The resulting inactivated viruses are then mixed with an aluminium-based adjuvant.
As an inactivated vaccine like BBIBP-CorV and BBV152, CoronaVac uses a more traditional technology that is similar to the inactivated polio vaccine. Initially, a sample of SARS-CoV-2 from China was used to grow large quantities of the virus using Vero cells. From then on, the viruses are soaked in beta-propiolactone, which deactivates them by binding to their genes, while leaving other viral particles intact. The resulting inactivated viruses are then mixed with an aluminium-based adjuvant.
CoronaVac does not need to be frozen, and both the vaccine and raw material for formulating the new doses could be transported and refrigerated at 2–8 °C (36–46 °F), temperatures at which flu vaccines are kept. CoronaVac could remain stable for up to three years in storage, which might offer some advantage in vaccine distribution to regions where cold chains are not developed.
As an inactivated vaccine, Covaxin uses a more traditional technology that is similar to the inactivated polio vaccine. Initially, a sample of SARS-CoV-2 was isolated by India's National Institute of Virology and used to grow large quantities of the virus using Vero cells. From then on, the viruses are soaked in beta-propiolactone, which deactivates them by binding to their genes, while leaving other viral particles intact. The resulting inactivated viruses are then mixed with an aluminium-based adjuvant.
In April 2020, China approved clinical trials for a candidate COVID-19 vaccine developed by Sinopharm's Beijing Institute of Biological Products (BBIBP-CorV) and the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products (WIBP-CorV). Both vaccines are chemically-inactivated whole virus vaccines for COVID-19.
On August 13 2020, the Wuhan Institute of Biological Products published interim results of its Phase I (96 adults) and Phase II (224 adults) clinical studies. The report noted the vaccine had a low rate of adverse reactions and demonstrated immunogenicity, but longer-term assessment of safety and efficacy would require Phase III trials.
As an inactivated vaccine, CoviVac uses a more traditional technology that is similar to the inactivated polio vaccine. Initially, a sample of SARS-CoV-2 strain AYDAR-1 was isolated by the Chumakov Centre at the Russian Academy of Sciences and used to grow large quantities of the virus using Vero cells. From then on, the viruses are soaked in beta-propiolactone, which deactivates them by binding to their genes, while leaving other viral particles intact. The resulting inactivated viruses are then mixed with an aluminium-based adjuvant.
* Minhai COVID-19 vaccine:
Minhai COVID-19 vaccine is a COVID-19 vaccine developed by Minhai Biotechnology Co. and Kangtai Biological Products Co. Ltd.
On May 14, 2021, The vaccine is the fourth inactivated Chinese Vaccine to be authorised for emergency use.
QazVac is currently in Phase 3 (III) of the Clinical Trial, which is expected to be fully completed by July 9, 2021. It is unclear when the first preliminary results will be published.
The administration of the vaccine for the general population began at the end of April 2021. The Research Institute Kunsulu Zakarya's Director General's justification is that the trial is almost 50% completed and "people who have received [the] vaccine feel well; there have been no side-effects and the effectiveness of the vaccine is high".
* Protein subunit Vaccines:
EpiVacCorona is a peptide-based vaccine against COVID-19 developed by the VECTOR center of Virology. It consists of three chemically synthesized peptides (short fragments of a viral spike protein) that are conjugated to a large carrier protein. This protein is a fusion product of a viral nucleocapsid protein and a bacterial MBP protein. The third phase of a clinical trial, which should show whether the vaccine is able to protect people from COVID-19 or not, was launched in November 2020 with more than three thousand participants. It is assumed it will be completed in August 2021. According to the vaccine developers, the peptides and the viral part of the chimeric protein should immunize people who received this vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 and trigger the production of protective antibodies. However, some experts in the field have expressed concerns about the selection of peptides for use as vaccine antigens. In addition, there are also serious concerns about the vaccine immunogenicity data, which have fuelled independent civic research efforts and criticism by some experts. Meanwhile, the EpiVacCorona has received vaccine emergency authorization in a form of government registration and is available for vaccination outside the clinical trials. The vaccine delivered via intramuscular route and aluminium hydroxide serves as an immunological adjuvant.
ZF2001, trade-named ZIFIVAX, is an adjuvanted protein subunit COVID-19 vaccine developed by Anhui Zhifei Longcom in collaboration with the Institute of Microbiology at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. As of December 2020, the vaccine candidate was in Phase III trials with 29,000 participants in China, Ecuador, Malaysia, Pakistan, and Uzbekistan.
ZF2001 employs technology similar to other protein-based vaccines in Phase III trials from Novavax, Vector Institute, and Medicago. It is administered in 3 doses over a period of 2 months.
ZF2001 was first approved for use in Uzbekistan and later China. Production capacity is expected to be one billion doses a year. Phase II results published in The Lancet on the three dose administration showed seroconversion rates of neutralizing antibodies of between 92% to 97%. - Published by The Beyond News (Breaking News).